19 Basic Ubuntu Commands and Terminal Shortcuts for Beginners

Ubuntu is one of the tailor-made Linux distributions and you must be well familiar with Unbuntu before entering the Linux world. If you are new to it, there are certain Ubuntu Terminal Commands that you need to learn to be a master of it. So if you are beginners, keep on reading to know some of the most commonly used Ubuntu Commands and their usage.

Ubuntu for Beginners- Learn the Basic Ubuntu Commands 

  • sudo

    Sudo stands for ‘SuperUserDo’ which is one of the most important Ubuntu Commands that a novice to Linux must know how to use. This command lets you run programs or further commands with administrative rights similar to ‘Run as administrator’ in Windows. Every command that requires root permission, for example, to alter files in a directory that you don’t have access to, you will need sudo command. You have to use sudo before every command that requires permission.

  • apt-get

    This command holds great significance for Ubuntu for Beginners. apt-getis required to install, update, remove, and upgrade any package that you need to run in Linux and works on the database of existing packages. Have a look at the list of different apt-get commands you need to know about-

    sudo apt-get command
    After a new installation, you need to run the sudo apt-get command in any Linux system. You can use the Ubuntu terminal command to do this and this will update the database and remind your system about the newer packages whenever they are available.

    sudo apt-get command

    sudo apt-get upgrade
    Once you are done updating the package database, the next important step is to upgrade the packages that you have installed.

    sudo apt-get upgrade

    sudo apt-get install
    You can use this Ubuntu Command to install a program if you know the name of the package. Just swap the package name with the desired one.

    sudo apt-get install

    sudo apt-get remove
    As the name suggests, this command is used to remove the installed program. You just need to know the accurate name of the software that you want to uninstall. In case you don’t know the name, you can use the basic Linux Commands to get the list of all the packages on your device and then copy the package from there.

    sudo apt-get remove

    However, this Ubuntu terminal command only removes the software from your system and not the configuration or data files. These files will be used when you want to reinstall the same software using the same settings.

    sudo apt-get purge
    This Ubuntu command is applied to remove the software completely from your system including the data or configuration files, as a result, you will not get the modified settings while doing the reinstallation.

    sudo apt-get purge

    sudo apt-get autoremove
    To remove the unnecessary packages i.e. that unimportant software that gets automatically installed by the system whenever you install a program, you need this Ubuntu terminal command. This thing is mostly seen in Ubuntu where applications share the same libraries. So if you want to remove unwanted software dependencies after installing a package, you can run apt-get autoremove command.

    sudo apt-get autoremove

  • Is

    Is i.e. List command is useful when you want to see anything in your directory. By using this Ubuntuterminalcommandyou will be able to use all the files and folders of the directory you are currently working in. you can even mention locations to other directories in case you want to view their contents.

  • cd

    Changing directory command is also known as chdir and is always in use in the terminal. It is one of the basic Linux Commands that is easy to use and you just have to type cd before the folder name.

    Here are some examples to use this command:
    -> cd/- to go to the root directory
    -> cd..- to go one level up in the directory
    -> cd- – to move to the preceding directory

  • pwd

    Using the pwd ubuntu command, you can get the full pathname of the current working directory displayed.

  • cp

    This ubuntuLinuxcommandlets you copy a file and to use it you need to mention both the file to be copied and the location where it has to be pasted. First, decide the file you want to copy and enter the destination where you want to paste it.

  • mv

    mv is another significant command of Ubuntu for Beginners as it lets you move files and you can rename the files while moving them to the directory they are currently in but with a new name. It is used in the same way as we use the cp command.

  • rm

    When you want to remove a specified file, you have to use the rm command which is considered an important command of Ubuntu For Beginners.

    Here are the examples of rm command:
    -> rmdir– Removes an empty directory
    -> rm -r– Removes a directory and its content

  • mkdir

    If changing directory is not enough, you can use this Ubuntu Command i.e. mkdir that allows creating a new directory. Just state where the directory has to be created or else it will be created in the current directory you are working in. This Ubuntu Terminal Commands will let you create a new folder or subfolder and you just have to give the name to the folder after mkdir command in your terminal.

  • history

    History command shows all the commands you have made previously until the history limit.

    history command

  • df

    df stands for display filesystem and this command of Ubuntu For Beginners is useful when you need to see the information about the disk space usage of all the mounted filesystems.

    df ubuntu command

  • du

    du stands for directory usage and this Ubuntu terminal command is used to get the information about the size of a directory along with the subdirectories.

  • free

    This is again a basic command of Ubuntu for Beginners and exhibits the amount of free space present on the system.

  • uname-a

    This Ubuntu Command is entered to get comprehensive and basic information about the system.

  • top

    If you want to get the information about the processes that are using the most resources at a given point in time, you can use the top Ubuntu Linux command.

  • man

    man is another basic Linux Command that refers to a manual page that is given in details and if you want to get familiar with any of the unknown commands, you are suggested to read the manual pages.

    For instance
    man man – to get information about the manual
    man intro – it will give you a brief introduction about Ubuntu Linux Commands

  • info

    This command is similar to the previous one but offers in-depth and clear information.

  • passwd

    This is one of the important Basic Linux Commands that is useful in changing user passwords through the terminal. To run this Ubuntu Commandyou need to mention the username whose password is required to be changed.

  • whatis

    This command will give you a concise report of the functionality of a particular in-built UbuntuLinuxCommand.

    For example:
    whatis cd
    whatis man

    and after you will enter the above commands, it will show the functions of cd, man, and help commands.

So, these were all the basic and most used Ubuntu Commands that you need to be well-versed with. Moreover, you can learn the Ubuntu Terminal Command shortcuts to get a step ahead in the world of Ubuntu.

Useful Ubuntu Terminal CommandsShortcuts

Ubuntu Terminal
Ctrl + Shift + T Open a new tab on the existing terminal
Ctrl + Shift + W Close the working tab
Ctrl + A Place the cursor to the beginning
Ctrl + E Place the cursor to the end
Ctrl + U Deletes the entire line
Ctrl + K Deletes the command from the right of the cursor
Ctrl + W Clears the word just before the cursor
Ctrl + R Lets you search history to look commands similar to what you have entered
Ctrl + C Ends the running process
Ctrl + Z Defer the current process
Ctrl + Shift + V
or Shift + Insert
Paste the copied contents
Up/Down Arrow Keys Lets you scroll through command history and execute the same command multiple times
Ctrl + L Clears the terminal output
Alt + F Move ahead one word
Alt + B Go backward one word
Ctrl + Shift + C Copy the selected command to the clipboard
TAB Completes the command you are typing

See Also:
How to Delete Downloads on Mac in Simple Steps
9 PC Tune Up Softwares